Is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. Lubricants are also used for cooking, bioapplications on humans, ultrasound examination, and medical examination.


Are used to manufacture products including lubricating greases, motor oil and metal processing fluids. Most important factors is the liquid’s viscosity at various temperatures. Whether or not a crude oil is suitable to be made into a base oil is determined by the concentration of base oil molecules as well as how easily these can be extracted.

Base Oil

Is a semisolid lubricant, generally consists of a soap emulsified with mineral or vegetable oil. The characteristic feature of greases is that they possess a high initial viscosity, which upon the application of shear, drops to give the effect of an oil-lubricated bearing of approximately the same viscosity as the base oil used in the grease.

Gear Oil

Is a lubricant made specifically for transmissions, transfer cases, and differentials in automobiles, trucks, and other machinery. It is of a high viscosity and usually contains organosulfur compounds. Gear oils account for about 20% of the lubricant market.

Motor Oil

Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any one of various substances that consist of base oils enhanced with various additives, particularly antiwear additives, detergents, dispersants, and, for multi-grade oils, viscosity index improvers. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines.

Paraffin Wax

Or petroleum wax is a soft colorless solid derived from petroleum, coal or shale oil that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles.